Name File Type Size Last Modified
Documentation and Codebook_v1.pdf application/pdf 306.1 KB 05/19/2021 06:39:AM
WOHCv1.csv text/csv 735.8 KB 05/14/2021 09:01:AM
WOHCv1.dta application/x-stata-dta 1.7 MB 05/14/2021 08:52:AM
WOHCv1.xlsx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet 352.5 KB 05/14/2021 08:50:AM

Project Citation: 

Escobar-Lemmon, Maria C., Hoekstra, Valerie J., Kang, Alice J., and Kittilson, Miki Caul. The Women on High Courts Database. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2021-05-19.

Project Description

Summary:  View help for Summary This study provides over-time and cross-national data on women on high courts. The dataset includes information on the year the first woman was appointed and the gender composition of the high court. High courts include single peak courts as found in many common law countries and constitutional courts and highest appellate courts as found in many civil law countries. Information on the year of the first woman spans the period, 1945 to 2020. Data coverage on the number and percentage of women on high courts starts in 1970 or when the court is created, whichever comes first. Countries included have a population of 200,000 or greater. The data were compiled by the authors and their research teams drawing on a combination of secondary sources and information from countries' courts and judges. 
Funding Sources:  View help for Funding Sources National Science Foundation. Law and Social Sciences Program (1323949); National Science Foundation. Law and Social Sciences Program (1323968); National Science Foundation. Law and Social Sciences Program (1324181)

Scope of Project

Subject Terms:  View help for Subject Terms women; women's rights; courts; foreign courts; judges; judge selection; representation; sex discrimination; gender roles; gender; gender issues; judicial; judicial; foreign judicial systems; global; Supreme Court justices; constitutional court; supreme court; appellate courts; world
Geographic Coverage:  View help for Geographic Coverage global
Time Period(s):  View help for Time Period(s) 1946 – 2020 (First woman: 1946-2020; Composition: 1970 or court creation-2013)
Collection Date(s):  View help for Collection Date(s) 2012 – 2020
Universe:  View help for Universe Country high courts in independent countries with a population greater than 200,000.
Data Type(s):  View help for Data Type(s) aggregate data; event/transaction data


Sampling:  View help for Sampling The sample includes country high courts in sovereign countries with a population of 200,000 or greater (in 2010). 

For the year the first woman was appointed, the sample includes 210 country high courts between 1946 and 2020.

The data on the number and percentage of women on high courts is an unbalanced cross-national time-series between 1970 and 2013. In Version 1.0 of our dataset, we have 5,675 observations for the number of women on high courts (63.2% coverage) and 5,655 observations on the percentage of women on high courts (63.0%).

For more information on the sample, please consult the Appendix 1 of 
Escobar-Lemmon, Maria C., Valerie J. Hoekstra, Alice J. Kang, and Miki Caul Kittilson. Reimagining the Judiciary: Women’s Representation on High Courts Worldwide. Oxford, UK.: Oxford University Press, 2021.
Data Source:  View help for Data Source The principal investigators and their teams compiled information from a variety of materials including secondary sources and primary sources on the presence of women on high courts (e.g., annual reports of the judiciary, commemorative studies celebrating the anniversary of a court, newspaper articles). For certain countries, the researchers contacted chief justices, court presidents, registrars, or ministers of justice for information on the gender composition of high courts.
Unit(s) of Observation:  View help for Unit(s) of Observation country high court
Geographic Unit:  View help for Geographic Unit country

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