Name File Type Size Last Modified
  data 12/08/2020 03:09:PM
  data_analysis 01/22/2021 07:32:PM
  dofiles 01/22/2021 07:34:PM
read_me.pdf application/pdf 177.4 KB 09/13/2021 10:48:AM

Project Citation: 

Gendron-Carrier, Nicolas , Gonzalez-Navarro, Marco , Polloni, Stefano , and Turner, Matthew A. Data and Code for: Subways and Urban Air Pollution . Nashville, TN: American Economic Association [publisher], 2021. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2021-09-13.

Project Description

Summary:  View help for Summary
The code and data in this repository generate the results of the paper “Subways and Urban Air Polution” by Gendron-Carrier, Gonzalez-Navarro, Polloni and Turner published in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics.

The source satellite data from MODIS are quite large and are housed in a separate repository because of space constraints. They are available at

The archive folder “dofiles” contains the code that organizes the MODIS data and matches it to other data sources. It results in the workhorse dataset "data/merge/analyze_me.dta"

The folder “data_analysis” contains the Stata dofiles that operate on “data/merge/analyze_me.dta” as well as archive folder “data/WHO_mortality” to generate tables and graphs presented in the paper.

Funding Sources:  View help for Funding Sources Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (Canada) (224995); World Bank Trust Fund on Sustainable Urbanization; International Growth Center (IGC) (89337); UK Department for International Development; Connaught Fund; Ontario Work-Study Program

Scope of Project

Subject Terms:  View help for Subject Terms AOD; subways ; air pollution; aerosol optical depth; public transit
JEL Classification:  View help for JEL Classification
      L91 Transportation: General
      R10 General Regional Economics (includes Regional Data)
      R11 Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
      R40 Transportation Economics: General
Geographic Coverage:  View help for Geographic Coverage Global
Time Period(s):  View help for Time Period(s) 2/1/2000 – 12/31/2017 (February 2000 to December 2017)
Collection Date(s):  View help for Collection Date(s) 2/1/2000 – 12/31/2017 ( February 2000 to December 2017)
Universe:  View help for Universe Cities that inaugurated a subway system between August 2001 and July of 2016.
Data Type(s):  View help for Data Type(s) geographic information system (GIS) data; observational data
Collection Notes:  View help for Collection Notes Data analysis is performed using Stata 15.


Response Rate:  View help for Response Rate 100% due to observability of pollution from satellite data. 
Sampling:  View help for Sampling All cities that opened a subway in the relevant time period are included.
Data Source:  View help for Data Source
DESA Population Division, UN. 2018. "World urbanization prospects: the 2018 revision" url Accessed: February 2020.

Feenstra, Robert, Robert Inklaar, and Marcel Timmer. 2015. "The next generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 31503182. 
Available for download at Accessed: 2019-09-16.

Google. 2020. Google maps. Accessed: February 2020

Gonzalez-Navarro, Marco and Matthew A Turner. 2018. "Subways and urban growth: Evidence from Earth" Journal of Urban Economics 108: 85–106. Available for download at: Gonzalez-Navarro, Marco and Matthew A Turner. 2019. Replication data for: "Subways and urban growth: Evidence from earth" url

Harris, I., P.D. Jones, T.J. Osborn, and D.H. Lister. 2014. "Updated high-resolution
grids of monthly climatic observations - the CRU TS3.26 dataset" International Journal of Climatology, 34(3), 623-642. Available for download at Accessed: 20181028.

Levy, Rob, Christina Hsu, and al. 2015a. "MODIS atmosphere l2 aerosol product,
NASA MODIS adaptive processing system", Goddard space flight center, USA. Accessed: November 2018.

Urbanrail. 2020. Accessed: February 2020.

Wentz, F., J. Scott, R. Hoffman, M. Leidner, R. Atlas, and J. Ardizzone. 2015. "Remote sensing systems cross-calibrated multiplatform (ccmp) 6-hourly ocean vector wind analysis product on 0.25 deg grid, version 2.0" Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, CA. Available online at
Accessed: 2019-10-28.

Wikipedia. 2020. Wikipedia. Accessed: February 2020.

World Health Organization. 2011. Urban outdoor air pollution database.
en/. Accessed: 2013-04-04.

World Health Organization. 2014. Ambient air pollution database.
en/. Accessed: 2015-11-10.

World Health Organization. 2016. Ambient air pollution database.
en/. Accessed: 2017-04-10.

Note: All WHO links are now broken but the source datasets are included in the replication archive in data/pollution/source/WHO/.

Collection Mode(s):  View help for Collection Mode(s) remote sensing; web scraping
Unit(s) of Observation:  View help for Unit(s) of Observation Metropolitan areas
Geographic Unit:  View help for Geographic Unit Metropolitan area

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