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Project Citation: 

J. Kleven, Henrik, Landais, Camille, and Egholt Søgaard, Jakob. Codes for: Does Biology Drive Child Penalties? Evidence from Biological and Adoptive Families. Nashville, TN: American Economic Association [publisher], 2021. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2021-05-24.

Project Description

Summary:  View help for Summary
This paper investigates if the impact of children on the labor market outcomes of women relative to men — child penalties — can be explained by the biological links between mother and child. We estimate child penalties in biological and adoptive families using event studies around the arrival of children and almost forty years of adoption data from Denmark. Short-run child penalties are slightly larger for biological mothers than for adoptive mothers, but their long-run child penalties are virtually identical and precisely estimated. This suggests that biology is not a key driver of child-related gender gaps.

Scope of Project

Subject Terms:  View help for Subject Terms children; parents; adoptive parents; labor markets; Denmark
JEL Classification:  View help for JEL Classification
      D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
      J13 Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
      J16 Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
      J22 Time Allocation and Labor Supply
Geographic Coverage:  View help for Geographic Coverage Denmark
Time Period(s):  View help for Time Period(s) 1/1/1980 – 12/31/2017
Data Type(s):  View help for Data Type(s) administrative records data


Data Source:  View help for Data Source Statistics Denmark (DST)
Unit(s) of Observation:  View help for Unit(s) of Observation Individuals

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