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QAROTCodebook_HughesPaxtonClaytonZetterberg_V1_August2017.pdf application/pdf 124.7 KB 07/20/2017 12:41:PM
QAROTdata_HughesPaxtonClaytonZetterberg_CountryYear_V1_August2017.csv text/csv 895.1 KB 08/16/2017 02:29:PM

Project Citation: 

Hughes, Melanie M., Paxton, Pamela, Clayton, Amanda, and Zetterberg, Pär. Quota Adoption and Reform Over Time (QAROT), 1947-2015. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-08-16.

Project Description

Summary:  View help for Summary Quota Adoption and Reform Over Time, or QAROT, is the first longitudinal dataset with information about the adoption, implementation, and reform of national gender quotas across the world. National gender quotas regulate (s)election to national legislatures through constitutional provisions or national laws that require some share of general election candidates or legislators to be women. The dataset includes new measures of quota design, quota thresholds, placement mandates, sanctions for non-compliance, and quota effectiveness. We also create a single-variable measure of the presence of an effective quota to be used by comparative politics researchers to control for this powerful institutional feature.

Scope of Project

Geographic Coverage:  View help for Geographic Coverage global
Time Period(s):  View help for Time Period(s) 1947 – 2015
Collection Date(s):  View help for Collection Date(s) 2006 – 2017


Data Source:  View help for Data Source The QAROT dataset is the result of harmonizing data from two independent coding efforts. Melanie Hughes and Pamela Paxton began collecting data on quotas in 2006 (Paxton, Hughes, and Green 2006; Hughes, Krook, and Paxton 2015). In 2014, Amanda Clayton and Pär Zetterberg independently collected a second dataset on quota adoption and effects (Clayton and Zetterberg 2015). Both datasets had information on the timing of first quota adoption and implementation. In the few cases where the data disagreed, we followed up with additional research. Data on quota reforms, placement mandates, and reserved seats are from Hughes and Paxton. All authors collectively coded additional measures of reserved seats and ensured the data were complete through December 2015.  

Sources of data on quotas include: the Global Database of Quotas for Women and associated reports (International IDEA 2016); national constitutions and secondary laws; local newspapers; reports from local, regional, and international NGOs and election observers; academic research; consultation with country experts; as well as our own case-specific knowledge, including in-country interviews. We gratefully acknowledge data collected by Bush (2011), Krook (2009), and Dahlerup et al. (2014). 

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